From Science to Philosophy

When taking a scientific law into consideration, the following four aspects should be studied about it:

1-     The Reality of a Scientific Law is the harmony existing in nature, protected by God. If we do not believe in God, we will have no logical way to account for the harmony and order in nature, the continuation of which is the origin of scientific laws.

As we know, there are several theories on the laws of nature:

a)     Laws are innate,

a)     Laws are not innate, or the  instructional the theory about laws

b)     The theory of observable, orderly symmetries,

c)     Laws are conventional.

In the first theory, the scientific law discovers the innate why others are related to other phenomena. In other words, it is unsolved how the original law is to be interpreted. The other problem with this theory is that the internal relationships and characteristics of an action are considered absolutely relative. Characteristics that are innate and internal to one process may be external in another.

The instructional theory, which we approve of, states that there is no extended rope to pull phenomena after each other, and prove that Phenomenon A must definitely be followed by Phenomenon B. We have failed to directly observe the essentialrelationships that form the laws of nature even with the mostaccurate tools. We know that the essential relationships that make up the laws ofnature are not mental, and that the laws of nature show each scientistvarious constants that science is based on. Will there be a day whenwe can observe these constants? Thus, the best of these theories on the nature of the laws of nature is the instructional one, for it accounts for the more important hows and whys.

According to the instructional theory, the universe and everything in it are constantly changing, for God's blessing flows into it from the world of supernatural. Jalal-addin Mohammad Molawi (Rumi) has supported the instructional theory in these verses of his poetry:

قرن‌ها بگذشت و  اين قـرن نُويســت     ماه آن ماه اســت و آب آن آب  نيسـت

عدل آن عدل است و فضل آن فضل هم ليک  مستبدل  شــد اين قـرن و امــم

قـــرن ها بر قرن‌ها رفـت ای همــام   ويــن   معانــی بر قــرار و بــر دوام

شد مبــدّل  آب  ايـن جــو چند بــار  عکـس مـــاه و عکــس اختـر  برقرار

پــس  بنايــش  نيســت بر آب روان    بلکـــــه  بر اقطـــار  اوج آسمـــان

(Many centuries and eras have gone by, but the reflection of the moon shining on the stream of times is still coming from the same moon. Justice, for instance, is still as it was; greatness has remained unchanged. It is only the centuries and the people who have changed. O Noble One! Centuries have gone by, but truly original human concepts and virtues are still standing firm. The water in the stream of the universe keeps changing by the moment – not even two moments are the same – but the picture reflected upon the water from the moon and the stars (the truth) is firm and steady. Thus, the basis of the reflection of the moon and the stars cannot be on the water; it must be connected to higher things.)

In fact, Jalal-addin Mohammad Molawi (Rumi) is pointing out that time passes us by, relationships change and peoples and social trends evolve, some disappear forever, but the basic concepts and truth about man and the universe prevail firmly.

The instructional theory believes that the creatures of the universe do not innately possess the ability to continue their existence, but receive it from a higher, greater world. In other words, the fact that A must have the Characteristic B, or B must be the result of A is not their innate quality, but divine blessing. Let us quote from Albert Einstein: "I consider God the protector of laws."

And also from Max Plank:

"A physicist's ideal is to externally discover the truth; yet, his sole tool – his devices of measurement – never tells him anything about the real world. Measures are merely doubtful messages to him. As Helmholtz believes, they are signals the real world sends him, and he tries to make a conclusion from them, just like a linguist attempting to read a document found from a lost civilization. In order to achieve any results, the linguist must accept the fact that the document has some meaning. Likewise, the physicist has to base his work on the rule that the universe follows laws we cannot comprehend." [1]

Bertrand Russell believes that by imagining that the realities about the universe come from another eternal world, we will have a pleasant picture of our world.[2]

2-    How Scientific Laws Are Discovered: the first factor in discovering scientific laws is the concrete belief and intelligent understanding of the fact that no phenomenon in the world is without a law. If a scientist tends to discover the laws of nature, he must basically have faith in the harmony in the universe. As Einstein writes:

" For even the slightest rays of intelligence and logic to be able to shine on the world, deep faith that the universe is harmonious is essential. A burning desire to understand is necessary. Men like Newton and Kepler undoubtedly had such faith and desire." [3]

Ever since man became capable of relating to other creatures from a scientific point of view, his primary motive for discovering the laws of the universe arose.

The steps the mind must go through in order to discover a scientific law are:

a)    The communication between his senses and tools with the subject.

b)    Experiencing and completing the observation by means of the senses and technical tools. In this step, trial and error observations are carried out until the scientific law is established.

c)     In the third step, the mind proceeds to consider the puzzling points, and deletes those that do not comply with the law studied.

d)    The last step includes a general theorem in the mind of the researcher forming a law, abstracting itself from observable cases in the world.

 

 



[1].Max Planck, Das Weltbild der Neuen Physik.

[2]. Berterand Russel, Mysticism and logic.

[3].Albert Einstein, Mein Weltbild

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