Education: The Basics
Education: The Basics
The four principles of education are:
Principle 1: The Fundamentals of Education
Here we are concerned with the basic principles and goals of education which we can divide into two groups:
The fixed fundamentals include the principles and rules which do not change because man's basic needs and talents always exist.
The changing fundamentals, however, refer to the principles that vary with the subject material and circumstances.
Our study of the fundamentals of education will involve two parts:
1-Absolute and relative goals that include the extent and limits of education.
2-The principles that provide the essential basis of education.
The Goals and Duties of Education
The goals of education are:
1-Moderating man's raw feelings, animal instincts and correcting wrong ideas that may govern his mind.
2-Inducing and making acceptable the highest of human ideals, realities and values for the human being educated. It is obvious that this goal cannot become a reality unless the former goal is achieved, for without raw feelings having been moderated and the necessary mental corrections made, man will never accept the highest of human ideals.
3-Interpreting for man what power is and how it is to be put to use. This is not possible unless man learns to wish for others also what he considers desirable for himself.
4-Creating a friendly relationship between man and himself: in many societies today, the internal cries of consciences are ignored and thoughts and ideas have fallen astray, distorting man's highest emotions, too – the sole way out is to turn back and make up with ourselves again.
The Basics of Education
There are a series of intelligible principles concerning education, which if properly followed, can lead to knowledge that is longer-lasting and more profound. For instance, when one accepts the necessity of honesty due to correct upbringing– realizing that honesty strengthens his character– his knowledge of honesty will be much deeper and stronger. Some of the principles of education are:
1-The most important thing about education is realizing its necessity. Each human being must attempt to gain knowledge, and adapt himself to be able to do that. Being lazy or inconsiderate about education will destroy man's constructive talents and powers. Man must remember that education is the rule of man's life and how to live it. Education helps him make the distinction between right and wrong, good and bad. If man admits the crucial role education plays in creating a life based on righteousness, he will definitely go after it.
2-The human soul, like the universe, has rules and laws, ignoring which will cause disorders in man's soul.
3-Education must convey the supreme aim of life to man.
4-Education is a gradual process; individuals cannot be educated in a hurry.
5-Unconditional promises are not possible in education; teachers must keep in mind that they are dealing with delicate, sensitive mental rules, and the least slip may totally neutralize all educational efforts.
6-Education requires discipline and effort, on behalf of both the teacher and the student. Effort and discipline are both necessary, because education is a serious matter. The more crucial a fact is considered, the more serious it will become, and the more serious something is regarded, the more firmly one will try to gain all the knowledge about it.
7-Man's perfectionist ego must be considered in education. The perfectionist ego considers the highest of human values, ideals and goals; here, since man does not only see himself, he will not consider himself as the ideal of all things, either.
8-Education can make man aware of his inventive creative potentials. It can help his creative talents flourish. Unfortunately, despite the current advances in the humanities, the rules of activating talents remain unclear. Thus, the kind of education that can activate creativities and geniuses is still not available to man.
●The differences between the characters of various individuals should be taken into consideration in education. Although there are educational principles and fixed fundamentals that are applicable to all people, educating some certain individuals also calls for special strategies. In other words, it is necessary to consider each individual's character and qualities, and then devise the necessary methods of education.
●The trainee should also always try to reinforce his modes of reception. Man should consider himself in need of facts and truths to elevate and develop his character throughout his whole life. In youth, however, the ability to receive facts and truths should be strengthened. As Maxim Gorky says, "A good teacher should be a good student."
●Respect for character is quite a sensitive issue in education. The character of the trainee – or student – must be accurately evaluated so the appropriate behavior needed with regard to the trainee can be determined.
If the character of the trainee does not have the capacity to accept the advantage you wish to present him with, the value of the advantage will be tarnished in his view, and it may harm him too, so the extremely popular fact today – "Always respect the individual being educated" – calls for reconsideration. If the individual's character is in a way that respect would make him selfish, we will be actually betraying him, not giving him an advantage.
9-It is vitally essential that values are not to be sacrificed for achieving goals.
10-Human life is valuable, provided that it does not violate the principles of other human lives. The life of each human being "depends upon rays of divine light; serving other people is equal to worshipping God, and harming human lives is deviation from the right path."
11-There is a reaction to every action. "We must accept the fact that if we present an individual or the society with a bunch of flowers with purely good intentions, a bunch of flowers will definitely be given to us in return, directly or indirectly. If this fact is considered as a part of human education, man's mental revolution will begin, and we can claim to have stepped beyond natural history and entered human history."
12-Both the trainer and trainee should accept that no results will be achieved without hard work.
13-Only an original effort will prevail; subsidiary, unneeded ones will fade away. What remains is what is to people's benefit.
14-Both the educator and the educated must avoid being cruel or undergoing cruelty.
15-Not taking the principles of education seriously leads to nihilism.